Why doctors and nurses can be vital vaccine messengers. 2021. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

Anderson RM, Vegvari C, Truscott J, Collyer BS. Challenges in creating herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection by mass vaccination. Lancet. 2020; 396:(10263)1614-1616

The 2016 motor vehicle occupant safety survey: emergency medical services. Traffic tech: technology transfer series. DOT HS 812 870. 2020. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevenation. COVID data tracker. 2021. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

Delbridge TR, Bailey B, Chew JL EMS agenda for the future: where we are… where we want to be. Prehosp Emerg Care. 1998; 2:(1)1-12

Dodd RH, Pickles K, Nickel B Concerns and motivations about COVID-19 vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021; 21:(2)161-163

Dooling K, McClung N, Chamberland M The Advisory Committee on Immunization practices' interim recommendation for allocating initial supplies of COVID-19 vaccine—United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020; 69:(49)1857-1859

Fisher KA, Bloomstone SJ, Walder J, Crawford S, Fouayzi H, Mazor KM. Attitudes toward a potential SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: a survey of US adults. Ann Intern Med. 2020; 173:(12)964-973

The workers who face the greatest coronavirus risk. 2020. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

KFF COVID-19 vaccine monitor: January 2021. 2021a. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

KFF COVID-19 vaccine monitor: June 2021. 2021b. https// (Accessed 7 July 2021)

Hotez PJ. Anti-science extremism in America: escalating and globalizing. Microbes Infect. 2020; 22:(10)505-507

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. 2021a. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. US vaccine tracker. 2021b. https// (accessed 11 December 2021)

Trust of society towards selected medical professions—doctors, nurses, paramedics. 2018. http//

Lerner EB, Newgard CD, Mann C. Effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the U.S emergency medical services system: a preliminary report. Acad Emerg Med. 2020; 27:(8)693-699

Malik AA, McFadden SM, Elharake J, Omer SB. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the US. EClinicalMedicine. 2020; 26

Shaw J, Stewart T, Anderson KB Assessment of US healthcare personnel attitudes towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in a large university healthcare system. Clin Infect Dis. 2021; 73:(10)1776-1783

Shekhar R, Sheikh AB, Upadhyay S COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care workers in the United States. Vaccines (Basel). 2021; 9:(2)

Torjesen I. COVID-19 will become endemic but with decreased potency over time, scientists believe. BMJ. 2021; 372

Emergency practitioners' motivations and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination

02 December 2021
Volume 11 · Issue 4



Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is an essential contributor to ending the pandemic. Acceptance of the vaccine among emergency medical service (EMS) professionals is largely unknown.


A survey was distributed to EMS professionals. Participants responded to questions about their experiences of COVID-19, if they had received a COVID-19 vaccine, and personal reasons behind their decision for having it. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression was used to produce adjusted odds ratios.


A total of 1087 survey responses were collected. Among respondents, 65% had received a full COVID-19 vaccine dose and 33% had not. Of those who had not, 81% said they were unlikely or very unlikely to receive a vaccine. Certification level, age and education were statistically significant factors for vaccine acceptance.


Age, education and certification level are statistically significant factors in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among EMS professionals. Additional research is needed to identify best practices to combat vaccine hesitancy.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the management and delivery of prehospital emergency medical care (Lerner et al, 2020). Emergency medical service (EMS) professionals are often on the first line of patient care, responding to 911 calls for medical or traumatic complaints. The nature of the work means emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics often have to provide care while being physically close to patients (e.g. inside a patient's home or within the compact compartment of an ambulance) for extended periods and in relatively poorly ventilated confines. Because of this intimate professional environment, EMTs and paramedics are at substantial risk of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Gamio, 2020).

Vaccines for the COVID-19 virus are crucial for the protection of health professionals and the general population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) unequivocally advises all practitioners, including EMTs and paramedics, to receive the COVID-19 vaccine (Dooling et al, 2020).

Subscribe to get full access to International Paramedic Practice

Thank you for visiting International Paramedic Practice and reading our archive of expert clinical content. If you would like to read more from the only journal dedicated to those working in emergency care, you can start your subscription today for just £48.

What's included

  • CPD Focus

  • Develop your career

  • Stay informed