Enrico Dippenaar

Senior Lecturer, Emergency Medicine Research Group, Anglia Ruskin University, UK

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Identifying cardiac activity using focused ultrasound in non-shockable arrests

A systematic literature search was undertaken between 22 February and 1 March 2021. Two databases, PubMed and ScienceDirect, were searched using keywords relating to the review and combined using...

Considerations on out-of-hospital pain assessment of a diverse population

Pain assessment is an important clinical feature of patient care as it generally dictates the treatment options that the clinician can offer a patient. Paramedics generally spend a limited amount of...

Physiological and psychological components of paramedic wellbeing

There are philosophical and scientific approaches that led to the development of many modern wellbeing models. Diener's (1984) ‘Tripartite model of subjective wellbeing’ was fundamental in the...

Triage systems around the world: a historical evolution

Triage in medical terms, as defined by the Oxford English dictionary, means ‘the assignment of degrees of urgency to wounds or illnesses to decide the order of treatment of a large number of patients...

An out-of-hospital perspective on hyperventilation syndrome

Blood acidity, measured as a pH, is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) present. Blood is comprised of 55% blood plasma, of which at least 90% is water (Institute for Quality and...

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